Sauget is located at(38.587013, -90.166690).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 4.4 mi². 4.1 mi² of it is land and 0.3 mi² of it (7.19%) is water.
Sauget was incorporated as "Monsanto" in 1926. It was formed to provide a liberal regulatory environment and low taxes for the Monsanto Chemical Plants at a time when local jurisdictions had most of the responsibility for environmental rules. It was renamed in honor of Leo Sauget, its first Village President.
Although the Village of Sauget has but a tiny population, it has a lot of industry. The Village is controlled by these industries. The Village was incorporated in part in response to the total failure of government in adjacent East St. Louis to deliver essential services, and in part to take advantage of federal grant funding programs available only to governmental units, as opposed to private industry.
The Village of Sauget operates the American Bottoms Treatment Plant, a very large sewage treatment plant that serves much of the Illinois side of the St. Louis metropolitan area. In addition, the Village operates a municipal physical/chemical treatment plant that receives industrial wastewater from its factories. This has been cited as one of only three municipal treatment plants of this type in the United States.
The Monsanto Plant in Sauget was the nation's largest producer of PCBs, and Environmental Protection Agency has designated the plant site along Dead Creek as a superfund site.
The Village of Sauget also has a very tolerant attitude toward small business. Many nightclubs exist in this zone of free enterprise.
In fact, the Village President of Sauget owns a couple night clubs himself. He is one of four members of his family to have served as Village President.
As of the census of 2000, there were 249 people, 101 households, and 61 families residing in the village. The population density was 60.3/mi². There were 115 housing units at an average density of 27.8/mi². The racial makeup of the village was 70.28% White, 27.71% African American, 1.20% Asian, 0.40% from other races, and 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population.
There were 101 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% were married couples living together, 21.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.6% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the village the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $35,833, and the median income for a family was $41,875. Males had a median income of $40,833 versus $25,714 for females. The per capita income for the village was $19,330. About 20.0% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 11.1% of those sixty five or over.
- The Uncle Tupelo song "Sauget Wind" makes obvious reference to Sauget and its industrialization.